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44Ti, 60Co & 56Ni
From Supernovae Explosions

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Contact: F.X.Timmes
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Observations - (as of 2016)

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NuStar 44Ti SN 1987A
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COMPTEL 44Ti Cas A
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COMPTEL 44Ti Vela
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NuStar 44Ti SN 1987A map
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NuStar 44Ti Cas A map
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COMPTEL 44Ti Vela map


44Ti and 56Ni (2010)
In this lovely tome by Magkotsios et al we compare the yields of 44Ti and 56Ni produced from post-processing the thermodynamic trajectories from three different core-collapse models – Cassiopeia A progenitor, a double shock hypernova progenitor, and a rotating two-dimensional explosion – with the yields from exponential and power-law trajectories. The peak temperatures and densities achieved in these core-collapse models span several of the distinct nucleosynthesis regions we identify, resulting in different trends in the 44Ti and 56Ni yields for different mass elements. Our analysis suggests that not all 44Ti need to be produced in an α-rich freeze-out in core-collapse events, and that reaction rate equilibria in combination with timescale effects for the expansion profile may account for the paucity of 44Ti observed in supernova remnants.

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Peak T & ρ profiles
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T & ρ plane results & SNII
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6 regions in the T & ρ plane


Contraints on the progenitor of Cassiopeia A (2006)
In this paper by Young et al we compare a suite of three-dimensional explosion calculations and stellar models incorporating advanced physics with observational constraints on the progenitor of Cassiopeia A. We consider binary and single stars from 16 to 40 M with a range of explosion energies and geometries. The parameter space allowed by observations of nitrogen-rich high-velocity ejecta, ejecta mass, compact remnant mass, and 44Ti and 56Ni abundances individually and as an ensemble is considered. A progenitor of 15-25 M that loses its hydrogen envelope to a binary interaction and undergoes an energetic explosion can match all the observational constraints.


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Ye vs mass
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Ejected 44Ti vs 56Ni
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Accretion rate vs time


44Ti and 60Co - 1996
In this paper, we explore the production of the radioactive isotopes 44Ti and 60Co in all types of supernovae is examined and compared to observational constraints including Galactic γ-ray surveys, measurements of the diffuse 511 keV radiation, γ-ray observations of Cas A, the light curve of SN 1987A, and isotopic anomalies found in silicon carbide grains in meteorites.

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44Ti half life
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44Ti & 60Co yields for Type II
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SN 1987A light curve


Experiments

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AMS of 44Ti
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56Ni & 57Ni decays